Safety production knowledge publicity column (2)
(1) Electricity safety 1. Electrical accident: It is caused by the abnormal action of electric energy on the human body or system. According to the different action forms of electric energy, electrical accidents can be divided into electric shock accidents, electrostatic hazard accidents, lightning disaster accidents, electromagnetic field hazards, and electrical system failure hazard accidents. 2. Electric shock: Pathological and physiological effects caused by the passage of electric current through the human or animal body. 3. Safety voltage: Under various environmental conditions, the human body will not suffer any harm when it comes into contact with a charged body with a certain voltage. This voltage is called safety voltage. The safety voltage stipulated in our country is 42V, 36V, 24V,
(1) Safety of electricity use
1. Electrical accident: caused by abnormal action of electric energy on the human body or system. According to the different forms of action of electric energy, electrical accidents can be divided into electric shock accidents, electrostatic hazard accidents, lightning disaster accidents, electromagnetic field hazards and electrical system failure hazard accidents.
2. Electric shock: pathological and physiological effects caused by electric current passing through the human body or animal body.
3. Safety voltage: Under various environmental conditions, the human body comes into contact with a charged body with a certain voltage without any harm, and the voltage is called the safety voltage. The safety voltage stipulated in China is 42V, 36V, 24V, 12V, 6V five levels.
4. Safety current: China determines AC (50~60Hz) 30mA and DC 50mA as human body safety current.
5. Safety distance: In order to prevent the human body from touching or approaching the charged body, and to prevent the danger caused by vehicles or other objects colliding or approaching the charged body, a certain spatial distance needs to be maintained during it.
6. Safety switch: a device that disconnects the power supply before approaching the live part.
(2) Machinery safety
Mechanical safety is a safety technical measure to prevent some mechanical hazards through the use of safety devices, protective devices or other means, the purpose of which is to prevent various contact injuries to people during operation. Guards and safety devices are also collectively referred to as safety guards. The focus of safety protection is on the transmission part of the machinery, the control area, the working area at height, other moving parts of the machine, the moving area of the mobile machinery, and the special protection that some machines need to take due to special dangerous forms. The means of protection to be used should not be decided based on the results of the risk assessment of specific machines. General requirements for safety protection devices: 1. The form and layout of the structure are reasonably designed and have practical protection functions to ensure that the human body is not harmed. 2. The structure should be strong and durable, not easy to damage; Reliable installation and not easy to remove. 3. The surface of the device should be smooth, without sharp edges, without adding any additional danger, and should not become a new source of danger. 4. The device is not easily bypassed or avoided, and there should be no leakage protection zone. 5. Meet the requirements of safe intervals so that all parts of the human body (especially hands or feet) cannot contact the danger. 6. It does not affect normal operation and shall not contact with any movable parts of the machinery; Minimal visual obstruction to people. 7. Easy to inspect and repair.
(3) Safety of working at height
Any operation carried out at a height height of more than 2m (including 2m) on the fall height datum and the height at which it is possible to fall is called high operation. Including landing at height and entering the pit peacefully. In view of the risk factors existing in the process of working at height, the main operational safety requirements are:
1. Strengthen the safety management of working at height and places prone to falling, and improve preventive measures.
2. It is necessary to formulate a plan for working at height according to the characteristics of working at height, and clarify the measures to prevent falling from height before each operation at height, and make a safety technical disclosure to the personnel engaged in working at height.
3. It is strictly forbidden to arrange practitioners with mental illness, high blood pressure, severe anemia, epilepsy, vertigo, heart disease, etc. to work at height. It is forbidden to arrange for people who are not suitable for climbing work, such as drunk personnel, the elderly and infirm, abnormal mood, poor eyesight, pregnant female workers, etc., to work at height.
4. Personnel engaged in working at height must be equipped with labor protection equipment that meets national standards, and supervise their wearing and use. Check before the operation, and correctly use the anti-fall supplies and climbing equipment and equipment during the operation.
(4) Safety of lifting operations
Lifting operations have the danger of electric shock, falling from heights, mechanical injury and so on. There is a danger of causing traffic accidents during the driving process, and the danger of object blows lurking in the lifting operation. When hoisting flammable, explosive, toxic and corrosive materials, slings, spreaders such as accidental breakage, hook damage or violation of operating procedures and other occurrence of hanging objects falling, in addition to the possibility of direct injury, will also be flammable, explosive, toxic, corrosive objects packaging damage, medium flow out, causing pollution, and even fire, explosion, corrosion, poisoning and other accidents will occur. Safety operation requirements:
1. Check and clean the operation site before lifting, determine the handling route, and remove obstacles; Check various machinery such as lifting equipment, wire rope, hook and other tools to ensure that the specifications are correct, safe and reliable.
2. The lifting point is selected correctly, the hanging object is firmly bound, and the cushion should be placed when the heavy object with sharp edges and corners is bundled and lifted.
3. It is forbidden to lift objects buried in the ground or condensed on the ground and equipment.
4. Use two cranes to lift a heavy object, should be equipped with a special lifting balance beam, lifting wire rope should be kept vertical, each crane under load can not exceed its maximum lifting capacity.
5. When lifting, the crane should be interviewed slightly off the ground to confirm that the heavy object is firmly hanged, the braking performance is good and the crane is stable, and then continue to lift.
6. It is forbidden to tilt and hang obliquely.
7. When the crane lifts heavy objects, take the lifting channel, and it is forbidden to cross over the head.
8. It is forbidden to stand on the hanging object, it is forbidden to process the hanging object, the hanging object is not allowed to stay in the air for a long time, and when the crane lifts heavy objects, the driver and command staff are not allowed to leave their jobs at will.
9. When the crane is running, it is forbidden for personnel to get up and down, it is forbidden to engage in maintenance work, and it is forbidden to cross from one overhead crane to another; Except for parking and maintenance, it is forbidden to walk on the track of the overhead crane.
(5) Safety of hazardous chemicals
Hazardous chemicals refer to chemicals that have flammable, explosive, toxic, harmful, corrosive, radioactive and other characteristics that will cause harm or damage to people, facilities and the environment. Commonly used hazardous chemicals are divided into 8 categories according to their main dangerous characteristics: explosives, compressed gases and liquefied gases, flammable liquids, flammable solids, oxidants and organic peroxidizers, toxic substances, radioactive materials, corrosive products. The main hazards of hazardous chemicals are flammable, explosive, toxic, harmful, corrosive, environmental pollution, etc. Common injury accidents and preventive measures: 1. Chemical burns: when using strong acid and strong alkali chemical solutions, chemical skin burns are caused when the chemical solution is splashed on the body due to improper protection or careless operation. 2. Poisoning: Generally, chemicals with volatile toxic liquids, such as trichloroethylene, n-hexane, toluene, xylene, etc., are easy to cause poisoning due to improper protection or weak body resistance.
3. Preventive measures:
●Strengthen technical training of employees and strictly implement operating procedures.
●When exposed to toxic chemicals, you must wear a gas mask and gloves.
●When chemicals accidentally get into the skin and eyes, they will immediately rinse with water, and then go to the hospital for examination and treatment.
●If the body has symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, allergies, etc., it will be associated with whether it is related to work, and then seek a doctor for diagnosis.
● Do not bring chemicals home (dormitory).
●Do not wear work clothes home (dormitory), and change clothes after work.
●Strengthen the ventilation of the workshop to minimize the volatilization of chemicals.
●In the event of a gas leak, it should be evacuated upwind.
●Regular physical examination, pay attention to physical changes, and detect problems in time.