"Internet +": a new path for enterprise management reform
Under the new normal of my country's economy, the Internet has become an important economic engine. The Internet has quietly changed the business model and management methods of enterprises, especially traditional enterprises. Therefore, for enterprises, pay close attention to the new changes brought about by "Internet +", timely discover the problems existing in the internal management of enterprises in the new environment, and carry out corresponding changes and innovations to quickly adapt to the new social development trend. 1. "Internet+" from the perspective of management The concept of "Internet+" was proposed by Ma Huateng, chairman and CEO of Tencent. "Internet +" is not for traditional industries
Under the new normal of China's economy, the Internet has become an important economic engine. The Internet's changes to the business models and management methods of enterprises, especially traditional enterprises, have quietly occurred. Therefore, for enterprises, pay close attention to the new changes brought by "Internet +", timely discover the problems existing in the internal management of enterprises in the new environment, and carry out corresponding changes and innovations to quickly adapt to the new social development trend.
I. "Internet +" from the perspective of management
The concept of "Internet +" was proposed by Ma Huateng, Chairman of the Board of Directors of Tencent and C E O. "Internet +" is not a subversion of traditional industries, but a replacement and upgrading; The "+" of "Internet +" is not only the "+" in technology, but also the "+" in thinking, concept and mode.
From the perspective of management, "Internet +" represents a new management thinking, that is, on the basis of the Internet, big data and cloud computing, inject a new ability or DNA into various fields of enterprise management, improve the production efficiency of enterprises, activate enterprise vitality and innovation, and enable enterprises to achieve new life in a new environment.
Second, the urgency of enterprise management reform in the "Internet + era"
Darwin's Theory of Evolution expounded the natural evolutionary logic of "natural selection, survival of the fittest". When the environment changes drastically, it is not the strongest that can survive, nor the smartest that can survive, but the most suitable can survive.
At present, under the wave of Internet revolution, China's business environment is undergoing drastic changes, in such a new situation, if an enterprise wants to be invincible in the fierce market competition, it must boldly innovate and adjust in time according to the new round of scientific and technological revolution and changes in the market environment, constantly explore various countermeasures and management models, and form new development ideas and management models in the Internet era.
Third, the problems existing in enterprise management in the "Internet +" era
(1) Self-centered, backward management concept
In the Internet era, people's communication methods, consumption methods, and consumption habits have changed, and the deep integration of the virtual world and the real world has built a new business ecosystem, and enterprises that cannot change their management concepts in time will not be able to meet market demand well, which will inevitably lead to some enterprises being "eliminated" by the market. The biggest feature of the management concept in the Internet era is the "user thinking" brought by the "Internet of Everything", users express their demands online, and who can meet the user's demands can win customers. "User thinking" requires enterprises to make changes in values, which leads to a series of adjustments in business behavior.
At present, many enterprises have not changed their management concepts in time, are still self-centered, and do not use Internet technology and big data to deeply explore customer needs to quickly carry out product research and development, production, operation, etc., in order to seek large-scale production to increase market share; There are also many enterprises that only stay on the surface of "user-centered" Internet thinking, and do not actually apply it to their business models, operating forms, and management methods.
(2) There are many management levels and low work efficiency
The organizational structure of some enterprises in China is still the traditional pyramid multi-level model, consisting of high-level, middle-level, grass-roots managers and operational layers, the chairman and president are located at the top of the pyramid, and their instructions are finally transmitted to the operational layer through the first-level management; The information of the operation layer is filtered layer by layer and finally reaches the top of the pyramid. In the environment of relatively backward productivity, relatively closed information and stable economic policy, the organizational structure is a better organizational form, with clear powers and responsibilities, rapid decision-making and unified commands. However, in the context of the "Internet +" era, with the continuous improvement of information technology, enterprises need to respond to the needs of the market in the first time, and the traditional pyramid management structure, the distance between the decision-making level and the management and the customer is far away, which seriously restricts the rapid response ability of the enterprise and is not enough to cope with the rapidly changing market.
Therefore, enterprises must innovate the organizational structure, reduce the management level, increase the management range, and make the structure more flat. The flat organizational structure is a controlled decentralization, so that the simplified management level can obtain the appropriate independent decision-making and management rights facing the market, and encourage subordinates to share more responsibilities to achieve goals, so that senior leaders have sufficient time and energy to devote themselves to strategic decision-making, grassroots employees can exert initiative, enthusiasm and creativity, everyone is responsible and implementation is in place.
(3) Rigid management mode, restricting the improvement of employee quality
In the traditional human resource management, often emphasize the strict management, supervision and control of employees, think that employees only rely on management, constraints to do the work well, this management model is often based on managers do not fully trust employees, employees have no autonomy, only a specific matter of executor, less to contribute their wisdom to the work, which can not cause employees' enthusiasm for work, but also not conducive to the improvement of employee quality.
The advent of the "Internet +" era allows every grassroots employee to obtain a large amount of information, capture market dynamics, strengthen learning, and form their own ideas through the Internet, which urgently requires fundamental changes in talent management methods, attach importance to communication with employees, give employees a trust, give appropriate authorization, and respect the wisdom of the crowd and work together.
(4) Traditional management content is increasingly entering the "Red Sea"
Scientific production management is an important content of traditional industries, in which the traditional management content of enterprises often only focus on materials, labor, land, capital and other production factors, with the advent of the Internet era, enterprises are more and more deeply aware of the need to shift from production to knowledge-based services, traditional enterprise management content in the increasingly fierce market competition will with the consumption of tangible assets and production factors "diminishing returns"; On the contrary, knowledge elements can explore and create the "blue ocean" of market demand through technological innovation and process reengineering under their own role, so as to cause and produce more innovation, so as to achieve "increasing returns".
Therefore, in the Internet era, enterprises should deeply integrate information technology with scientific research, operation and management, update the management methods of upstream and downstream industrial chains, customer needs, cost management, production management, business process management and other links, improve R&D efficiency, enhance R&D capabilities, and promote the transformation of enterprise management mode from "production factor management" to "knowledge factor management".
(5) The business form of enterprises has changed, and product competition is facing challenges
The technical driving force of "Internet +" is connectivity, and the driving force of business is openness. Connection and openness, regional monopoly will be broken, business information will no longer be closed, the original boundaries of many industries will be blurred, the business form of enterprises will undergo qualitative changes, the business competition between enterprises will also shift from product competition to platform competition, traditional product application companies are gradually surpassed by Internet platform companies in development speed and market value, and platform competition has become a new commanding height.
From the perspective of business history, the competition of enterprises has gone through a stage from product competition to industrial chain competition and then to platform competition. In the stage of product competition, enterprises compete with each other for the cost performance of products and services; In the stage of industrial chain competition, enterprises compete with each other for the ability to control the industrial chain and the resulting bargaining power; In the stage of platform competition, enterprises compete with each other for the ability to build and incubate business ecosystems. It can be said that product-oriented companies are worth billions of dollars, industrial chain companies are worth tens of billions, and platform companies are worth hundreds of billions. From the quantitative point of view, the number of three types of companies is exactly in a pyramid structure, the number of product-oriented companies is the largest, the number of industrial chain companies is gradually increasing, and there are not many platform-based companies in the world.
Fourth, the new path of enterprise management reform in the "Internet + era"
(1) Management philosophy: from self-centered to user-centered
Zhou Hongyi, chairman of 360, believes that the keywords of the Internet era are "user first, experience is king, free business model, and disruptive innovation." This has two meanings: first, the Internet is not only a technology, but also an idea; Second, in the Internet era, enterprises must attach importance to user first, innovation, open collaboration and networking. The change of concept is the beginning of enterprise management change, and enterprises that want to change must change their management concepts.
In the "Internet +" era, the survival of enterprises and their competitive advantages depend more on users, and the focus of enterprises should also shift from focusing on products in the past to focusing on diversified and personalized user needs. Enterprises turn users into partners, let users participate in product design and production, and make products more personalized and warm. In product marketing, we adopt a "one-to-one" sales method to improve service level and response speed, so as to improve customer satisfaction and win the market.
(2) Organizational structure: from "pyramid" management to "flat" management
The era of network economy is a speed economy, and rapid and effective transmission of information will become the key to the existence and development of enterprises, and become a necessary condition for enterprises to obtain competitive advantages. For organizations, multiple layers will bring layers of information degradation, and at the same time form a "thermal insulation layer" between the decision-making layer and the execution layer. To maintain the efficiency of decision-making to execution, it is necessary to cut unnecessary layers, and maintain the information symmetry between the top level and the front line at all times to improve decision-making efficiency and ensure accurate execution. Gary Hammel, a professor at London Business School, agrees that only companies with flat organizations that move faster than change can have a future. In the "Internet +" era, the traditional organizational structure can only be transformed from "pyramid" management to "flat" management, which can reduce costs, improve decision-making speed and enterprise adaptability.
Xiaomi's organizational structure has only three levels: seven core founders - department leaders - employees, focusing on small team operations, and fast processes can make things do to the extreme. Wang Yaohai, chairman of OPPLE Lighting, believes that in the future, enterprises must reduce at least seventy percent of the approval process and develop to a super flat structure, everyone must become the commander of the frontline battlefield, and the personnel of the enterprise must gradually adapt to the requirements of flat organizational structure, networking and teamwork.
(3) Employment philosophy: from rigid management to flexible management, from human resource management to talent management
With the development of information technology, stable, mechanical, repetitive work in the future will gradually be replaced by machines or "outsourced" to complete. In the end, only brainstorming, creative work remains, and the role of "people" in business is becoming more and more important. In the era of "Internet +", enterprises need to pay more attention to the improvement of employees' knowledge quality and the cultivation of potential ability, transform from rigid management to flexible management, attach importance to and respect the dignity and personality of employees, stimulate their enthusiasm and creativity from the depths of employees' hearts, and cultivate the source of strength for enterprises to win competitive advantages.
At the same time, human resource management should also be transformed from the traditional subordinate position and transactional static management to strategic, front-office and dynamic management. The management function has shifted from control to support, from supervision to incentive, from command to guidance, from the past management of people to the development and management of talents, so that the "people-oriented" management idea has become the core concept of the enterprise.
(4) Management content: the transformation from traditional production factor management to knowledge factor management
The most basic element of knowledge is information and technology, knowledge economy is also based on information acquisition and technology dissemination, information management and technology management is the basis of knowledge management, knowledge management is the extension and development of information management and technology management. By capturing the information and technology collectively needed by the enterprise, and applying this information and technology to improve enterprise management, the strategic layout of the enterprise is accurate and the workflow is convenient.
In the "Internet +" era, the use of information management, with the help of "external brains" or self-built "think tanks", is a trend of modern enterprise management content change. The change of information management is based on the needs of enterprises to quickly respond to the market and effectively integrate internal resources. The informatization of enterprises is conducive to enterprises to quickly grasp all kinds of required information, so that enterprises can make quick decisions, respond to market changes in time, and improve the management efficiency of enterprises.
In the era of "Internet +", Internet technology has been widely used in various supply chain links such as production, marketing and distribution of enterprises, and new management technology means have been applied to various fields of enterprise management, such as: real-time production management, business process reengineering, collaborative supply chain management, OA information system, human resources system (HRMS), etc., which greatly simplifies the business process of enterprises and improves work efficiency.
(5) Management mode: from product management to platform management
In any new and large market, in the absence of the future market development direction, the only thing that enterprises can explore is to create a platform system, form a strategic alliance between enterprises on the platform system, give full play to the competitive advantages of each enterprise, let all enterprises in the alliance jointly bear the cost of designing and developing new products, improve the ability of enterprises to resist market risks, and accelerate the pace of new products into the market. By jointly avoiding risks and sharing costs, enterprises can maximize their operating profits, thereby improving their respective core competitiveness.
In short, the "Internet +" era is a stage of the evolution of the business society itself, under the new normal of China's economy, enterprises, especially traditional enterprises, need to make full use of Internet tools and Internet thinking to reshape all aspects of enterprise management, through self-improvement, self-optimization, and then achieve curve overtaking. (Published on the Xinhua News Agency Outlook think tank website, with editorial changes.) )